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We live in historic occasions – for the primary time in human history, greater than 50% of the world’s inhabitants reside in cities. This development is not slowing down, especially in creating cities in China and Asia. High-rise buildings are a actuality of modern cities. They fulfil the want to provide environment friendly, cost-effective housing and work area for increasing numbers of individuals inside the restricted confines of the city. They maximise land use and financial efficiency utilizing ever-taller high-rise towers to fulfill the wants of growing populations.
Evolution of present high-rise design

Fundamental challenges of high-rise fireplace security

By their nature, high-rise buildings current unique fire-safety challenges. For designers, builders, operators and homeowners of those constructions, numerous elementary challenges have to be addressed to offer a reasonable stage of security from fireplace and its results.
The constructing structure should sustain a prolonged fireplace publicity.
Fire and its effects have the potential to unfold vertically, affecting numerous constructing occupants.
Active fire techniques could additionally be cut off from public utilities and must be self-sufficient.
Full constructing evacuation may be very difficult. A ‘Defend in Place’ technique is required with only selective evacuation from the Fire Area.
Occupants that do need to evacuate are far from the bottom and should depend on vertical technique of escape.
Firefighting operations happen internally and sometimes far from the ground-based sources.
Burj Khalifa uses excessive speed shuttle elevators to facilitate full constructing evacuation.
High-rise fire-safety strategy

In response to those distinctive challenges, the overall hearth technique for high-rise buildings should embody constructing features, systems and response procedures that achieve the following objectives:
Active and passive hearth safety options to control fire development and to minimise the consequences of fireplace on the construction and its occupants. Active methods include computerized sprinkler safety to control/suppress fire in a small area and smoke-management methods to comprise and control smoke movement to permit protected occupant evacuation. Passive components embrace fire-resistant construction and hearth obstacles to maintain the fireplace from spreading vertically. All energetic and passive systems should be maintained throughout the life of the building to operate correctly when wanted.
Means of egress features to facilitate occupant evacuation within the event of a fireplace. Occupants of the constructing have to be shielded from the effects of a fireplace in the constructing throughout their evacuation from the fireplace space. Fire-rated enclosed and mechanically pressurised stairs defend occupants from hearth and smoke results throughout evacuation. Fire detection, alarm and communication methods alert constructing personnel of a hearth occasion and supply direction to occupants to evacuate.
Firefighting assist methods that support operations performed primarily from contained in the constructing, oftentimes in locations distant from fire-service apparatus and floor support. Firefighting help techniques embody automobile access, firefighter’s elevators (lifts), hearth command centre, fireplace standpipe (wet riser) methods and firefighter communications all designed to facilitate emergency responders. In addition, constructing response plans and procedures must be carefully coordinated with first responders.
Codes and laws

The development of particular laws for high-rise buildings began after the Second World War with the expansion of high-rise building, especially within the United States. The 1975 Chicago Building Code is amongst the first codes to incorporate a complete chapter particularly for high-rise buildings – High-Rise Chapter 13. This part of the code addresses the next specific requirements for high-rise buildings:
Structural Fire Resistance and Passive Protection Measures

Automatic Sprinkler Systems

Standpipes (Wet Risers)

Occupant and Fire Dept. Voice Communications

Stairway Unlocking to allow evacuating occupants to re-enter the constructing at a decrease degree away from the hearth.
US Model Building Codes, British Standards and different European codes later added similar specific provisions for high-rise buildings. Many of these standards both have been adopted immediately or have been used as a technical basis for high-rise requirements in growing international locations. The result’s that there’s important variation in high-rise constructing requirements from place to put and most especially within the remedy of current high-rise structures constructed earlier than the enforcement of recent high-rise building codes.
As a result of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center towers on eleven September 2001, the US government initiated a evaluate of high-rise design with the intention of offering beneficial modifications to building laws to further protect high-rise buildings from extreme incidents. The results of those recommendations have been first launched into the US-based International Building Code in 2009. These embody new necessities for buildings taller than 420ft (128m) associated with elevated structural fire resistance, further means of egress and resilience of active and passive fire-safety systems. Many of these provisions are included in tall buildings globally.
Equally necessary to the technical requirements is the process of implementing a successful fire-safety strategy in new high-rise design or refurbishment of present constructions. The technical design for high-rise buildings always begins with establishing the regulatory framework for the challenge. This is finished by confirming the native codes and requirements applicable to the venture – even in locations with a major variety of tall buildings however particularly in the creating world. Very tall buildings are usually far more formidable and sophisticated than anticipated by most building codes. For many tasks, building codes may not fully tackle the fire-safety challenges and there may be a cause to look past the established codes for ‘enhancements’ to the fire- and life-safety aspects of the design.
In establishing this regulatory framework, the most important participant is the local authority having jurisdiction. They have to be engaged early and often all through the design course of. It is sometimes recommended that a ‘working group’ be created with everlasting members from the design group, ownership, contractor and local authority. This group must be maintained from the beginning of design via development and past. This group may even be liable for agreeing on the application of the codes and any extra features of the design.
Contemporary high-rise design

In the design and operation of high-rise buildings, the designer ought to be aware of a quantity of rising developments. Many of these new options and approaches are a result of our understanding that high-rise buildings require a substantial amount of resiliency, in order that they preserve fire security even when one system or characteristic fails. These new features are additionally based mostly on our recognition that high-rise buildings should be designed to reply to a wide variety of emergencies, along with hearth.
Active fire-protection systems are a critical part in high-rise hearth security. As a outcome, these systems must be designed to maximise their reliability. For methods that rely on fire pumps, the reliability of these pumps is critical. This could be achieved by the pump designed to NFPA/UL normal or by the availability of redundant – Duty + Active Standby – pumps. Finally, contemplate the utilization of a number of supply risers and the protection of critical risers within the building’s structural core. An various to methods that rely on fire pumps is to use a gravity or ‘down-feed’ system whereby water is delivered to sprinklers and standpipes by gravity from tanks situated above the sprinkler system.
It is anticipated that full evacuation of a high-rise constructing will be required beneath a big selection of scenarios including lack of energy or loss of mechanical systems. For เกจ์วัดแก๊สหุงต้ม , elevators can present an alternative means of evacuating building occupants in some emergencies. In order to achieve this operate, elevators should be specifically designed for this objective and supplied with emergency power. The constructing should embrace protected areas (refuge areas, sky lobbies or enclosed elevator lobbies) to facilitate staging or evacuation occupants. Elevators ought to be integrated as part of the building’s emergency response plan and ought to be operated in emergencies by educated building employees.
Atriums in tall buildings such as the Jin Mao tower in Shanghai introduce new complexity to occupant evacuation.
Operational elements

High-rise fire-safety strategies rely heavily on energetic hearth systems and complicated evacuation sequencing. For this reason, the operational aspects of high-rise buildings is of key importance. Active fire techniques should be continually monitored, maintained and examined to assure their reliability in an emergency.
Another critical operational facet is emergency planning and coaching. This begins with an Emergency Management Plan that outlines all foreseeable emergency scenarios and the response of building workers to these emergencies. The Emergency Management Plan should define all threats whether or not they’re pure disasters, terrorism and safety, or building methods emergencies. They should embody pre-planned response procedures for each event and they want to embody staff coaching and drills.
Future instructions in high-rise fireplace security

There is no doubt that cities will proceed to develop and buildings will keep growing taller and taller. This means a variety of things for future high-rise fire-safety design and operation:
More and increasingly advanced active hearth techniques for hearth management, smoke administration, evacuation and firefighting.
Increased structural fire resistance and robustness to make certain that buildings will stand, so occupants can exit.
Reliability and redundancy of critical building options will be extra critical.
Design, development and operational features will must be more closely integrated so that buildings could be operated and maintained safely throughout their lifecycle.
Fire security in high-rise buildings is the shared problem of designers, builders, fire authorities, owner/operators and users to maintain up a safe building surroundings for constructing occupants and first responders.
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